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2019年catti筆譯二級試題:貿易主義政策

來源:中華考試網   2019-09-12【

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  Many countries have adopted the principle of sustainable development, it can combatenvironment deterioration in air quality, water quality and production in developingcountries. Health education serves as a viable role for every member in the world.But some argue that it's a vague idea, some organizations may use it in its owninterests, whether environmental or economic is the nature of interests. Others arguethat sustainable development in developing countries overlook the local customs,habitude and people.

  Whereas interdependence is desirable during times of peace, war necessitatescompetition and independence. Tariffs and importation limits strengthen a county'seconomic vitality while potentially weakening the economies of its enemies.Moreover, protectionism in the weapons industry is highly desirable during suchcircumstances because reliance on another state for armaments can be fatal.

  For the most part, economists emphasize the negative effects of protectionism. Itreduces international trade and raises prices for consumers. In addition, domesticfirms that receive protection have less incentive to innovate. Although free trade putsuncompetitive firms out of business, the displaced workers and resources areultimately allocated to other areas of the economy

  Imposing quotas is a method used to protect trade, since foreign companies cannotship more products regardless of how low they set their prices. Countries that hopeto help a new industry thrive locally often impose quotas on imported goods. Theybelieve that such restrictions allow entities in the new industry to develop their owncompetitive advantages and produce the products efficiently. Developing countries often use this argument to justify their restrictions on foreign goods.

  Protectionism's purpose is usually to create jobs for domestic workers. Companiesthat operate in industries protected by quotas hire workers locally. Anotherdisadvantage of quotas is the reduction in the quality of products in the absence ofcompetition from foreign companies. Without compettion, local firms are less likely toinvest in innovation and improve their products and services. Domestic sellers don'thave an incentive to enhance efficiency and lower their prices, and under suchconditions, consumers eventually pay more for products and services they couldreceive from foreign competitors. As local companies lose competitiveness, theybecome pressured to outsource jobs. In the long run, increasing protectionism commonly leads to layoffs and economic slowdown.

  【參考譯文】為應對廣大發展中國家所面臨的環境惡化問題,保障空氣質量、水質和生產安全,許多國家紛紛制定可持續發展戰略。實踐證明,衛生教育對推動世界各國的發展具有切實可行性。但有人認為,可持續發展的概念不夠明晰,淪為部分組織謀取自身利益的工具,置環境或經濟負面效應于不顧。還有人認為,發展中國家在實施可持續發展戰略過程中,時常忽略民風、民俗和民生問題。

  在和平年代,各國之間相互依存、共謀發展,戰爭時期,各國又相互競爭,追求獨立。關稅和進口限制政策有助于增強本國經濟活力,同時削弱敵國的經濟增長潛力。再者,戰爭時期,武器制造行業采取保護主義,可避免對外過度依賴,保護本國免遭受致命打擊。

  經濟學家多半強調保護主義的負面效應,認為保護主義不僅削弱了國際貿易,還抬升了消費價格。不僅如此,在貿易保護傘下受到恩蔭的本土企業往往因此喪失了創新動力。在自由貿易的浪潮下,盡管缺乏競爭力的公司多以破產收場,但因此失業的工人和閑置的資源,依然可以在其他經濟領域找到用武之地。設定限額是貿易保護方式的一-種,在此情況下,不論商品定價多低,國外企業得以進駐市場的產品數量始終有限。各國通常會對進口產品采取限額政策,以推動本國新興產業的發展。經濟學家認為,此類限制政策有助于新興產業實體充分提升自身競爭力及商品生產效率。

  貿易主義政策通常旨在創造本士就業崗位。受益于限額政策的業內公司通常只雇傭當地工人。限額消除了外國對手的競爭壓力,致使國內產品的質量有所下降,這是限額政策的另一缺點。缺少競爭對手的刺激,本土企業往往不再大力投入創新,產品與服務質量也會大打折扣。國內商家既不注重提升生產效率、也不推出價格優惠措施,久而久之,消費者們寧愿花費更多錢財,去購買國外商家更勝一籌的產品與服務。 而本土企業- -旦喪失競爭力,就不得不外包產品和服務。從長遠來看,保護主義盛行,通常會導致企業裁員,引起經濟衰退。

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